Apple Tree Grafting
Apple trees can’t be grown from seed. Well, the pip will grow but it will very likely produce a fairly unpalatable crab apple* and the tree will be large. When propagating apple trees we want to grow a particular variety; Bramley, Cox or Russet etc. and we want the tree to be a manageable size. The only way to grow a Cox is to clone an existing Cox – all Cox apple trees alive today are cones of the original (or clones of clones etc.). In order to clone the existing tree we take cuttings of scion wood in the winter when pruning the tree, typically first year growth of approximately pencil thickness. These ‘twigs’ are then grafted onto rootstocks in the early spring. The size of the eventual tree is determined by the choice of rootstock: a seedling rootstock will be a full sized apple tree but for most gardens or orchards, semi-dwarfing or even very small dwarfing rootstocks are preferred.
The seedling, or standard rootstock is a third larger again than M111/M25.
This spring I bought ten MM106 for £2 each. A couple of months earlier I had attended an apple tree pruning workshop where along with learning the basics of pruning I was able to collect some scion wood from both Bramley and Fiesta (also known as Red Pippin). I also took some scions from the Worcester Pearmain on our allotment. The dry scion wood was wrapped in plastic and kept in the fridge to keep it dormant until it was time to graft. The ten trees were grafted on the 25th March 2012.
There are many ways to graft. I chose the ‘saddle graft’ as it seemed the simplest. An upwards pointing ‘V’ is cut into the rootstock and a matching hollow is cut into the scion so that it forms a tight fit. You can buy special grafting tape to wrap around the join but I used used strips of plastic carrier bag.
I’m writing this six months later on the 25th August having just removed the the plastic bindings (which in all cases stayed on tight). See below for the resulting grafts. Eight of the ten seem to have worked well, one didn’t take at all and one seems to have formed a good join but there are no leaves on the scion wood.
*Unless you happen to be lucky. Erica’s great-grandfather (known as Grandpa Buxton) planted a pip from an apple he ate in the garden, and the resulting tree has produced many excellent cooking apples over the years. It was registered as a new variety and is now even available by mail order!